Developmental Dietary Exposure

The following articles contextualize the presence of arsenic in the diet and its implications for children.

Analytical Results from Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Cereals for Infants, Non-rice Infant Cereal and Other Foods Commonly Eaten by Infants and Toddlers, Analytical Results from Sampling

For Consumers: Seven Things Pregnant Women and Parents Need to Know About Arsenic in Rice and Rice Cereal

"Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods" (Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2012)

"High concentrations of essential and toxic elements in infant formula and infant foods - A matter of concern" (Food Chemistry, 2011)

Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

Adult Dietary Exposure

The following articles contextualize the presence of arsenic in the diet and its implications for adults.

"Arsenic. What’s is Arsenic?" (National Institute of Health – July 2014)

"Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women" (PNAS, 2011)

"Probabilistic Modeling of Dietary Arsenic Exposure and Dose and Evaluation with 2003-2004 NHANES Data" (Environmental Health Perspectives, 2009)

"Market Basket Survey Shows Elevated Levels of As in South Central U.S. Processed Rice Compared to California: Consequences for Human Dietary Exposure" (Environmental Science and Technology, 2007)

"In Vivo Assessment of Arsenic Bioavailability in Rice and Its Significance for Human Health Risk Assessment" (Environmental Health Perspectives, 2006)

General Dietary Studies

Total Diet Study, Summaries of Multi-Year Results, Toxic and Nutritional Elements

"FDA's Total Diet Study: Monitoring U.S. Food Supply Safety" (Food Safety Magazine, 2002)

More On Arsenic In Food

Questions & Answers: Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products

Analytical Results from Inorganic Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Sampling

Analysis of Foods for As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); Current Method

"How Much Arsenic is in Your Rice?" (Consumer Reports, November 2014)

"Arsenic" (National Institute of Health, 2012)

"Studies Find Arsenic in Food Adds Up" (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2012)

"Arsenic in Your Food" (Consumer Reports, 2012)

"Consumer Reports Investigation: Varying Arsenic and Lead Levels in Juice Raises Concern; Government Should Set Standards" (PR Newswire, 2011)

Regulations & Risk Assessment - Current Recommendations

The following articles explore the current worldwide regulatory activities related to arsenic including recommendations, risk assessment and the complexities intrinsic in these processes.

FDA proposes limit for inorganic arsenic in infant rice cereal

FDA Statement on Testing and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products

Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment Report

External Peer Review Report: Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment: Draft Report, Addendum, and Model

FDA’s Response to External Peer Review 1 on FDA’s “Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment: Draft Report” (July 2015), “Addendum to FDA’s Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment,” and “Arsenic in Rice and Rice Products Risk Assessment Cancer Model

Draft Guidance for Industry: Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Cereals for Infants: Action Level

Supporting Document for Draft Guidance for Industry on Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Cereals for Infants: Action Level

Commission Regulation (EU) 2015-1006, amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels of inorganic arsenic in foodstuffs

Proposed Draft Maximum Levels for Inorganic Arsenic in Husked Rice "Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods" (WHO, 2015)

Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice (FDA, July 2013)

Risk Considerations Related To Environmental Arsenic Exposure: Drinking Water Ingestion Versus Dietary Intake or Soil Exposure (January 2012)

"European Food Safety Advisory: Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food" (2010)

Arsenic Technical Memorandum – Technical Briefing Paper on Arsenic (July 2010)

"Importance of Considering the Framework Principles in Risk Assessment for Metals" (Environmental Science and Technology, 2009)

"Advisory on EPA's Assessments of Carcinogenic Effects of Organic and Inorganic Arsenic" (Science Advisory Board, 2007)

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007)

More On Regulations & Risk Assessment

FDA's Arsenic Description and Q&A (2014)

FDA Explores Impact of Arsenic in Rice (2014)

"Evaluation of Arsenic Levels in Diet Australia" (2012)

"Hong Kong Center for Food Safety Total Diet Study on Inorganic Arsenic" (2012)

"Getting to the bottom of arsenic standards and guidelines" (2010)

Arsenic In The Environment

Where does arsenic come from? How does it get in my food? The following articles address the origins of arsenic and the reason for its presence in the food supply.

"Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice" (Plant Physiology, 2010)

"Transfer of Arsenic from Groundwater and Paddy Soil to Rice Plant" (World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2009)

"Speciation and distribution of arsenic and localization of nutrients in rice grains" (New Phytologist, 2009)

"Arsenic Uptake and Metabolism in Plants" (New Phytologist, 2008)

"Arsenic in Rice: I. Estimating Normal Levels of Total Arsenic in Rice Grain" (Environmental Science and Technology, 2008)

Market Basket Survey Shows Elevated Levels of As in South Central U.S. Processed Rice Compared to California: Consequences for Human Dietary Exposure (2007)

"Impact of irrigating rice paddies with groundwater containing arsenic in Bangladesh" (Science of the Total Environment, 2006)

"Uptake Kinetics of Arsenic Species in Rice Plants" (Plant Physiology, 2002)

"Arsenic uptake and metabolism in arsenic resistant and nonresistant plant species" (New Phytologist, 2002)

“Role of Fertilizer and Micronutrient Application on Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Accumulation in California Cropland Soils” (2004)

More On Environmental Sources and Uptake Mechanisms

"Health Effects and Mitigation of Arsenic: Current Research Efforts and Future Directions Workshop and Webinar Discussion Report" (NIEHS, May 2014)

“In Vivo Assessment of Arsenic Bioavailability in Rice and Its Significance for Human Health Risk assessment” (Environmental Health Perspectives, 2006)

"Mechanisms of Plant resistance to metal and metalloid ions and potential biotechnological applications" (Plant and Soil, 2005)

"Arsenic in rice - understanding a new disaster for Southeast Asia" (Trends in Plant Science, 2004)

"Arsenite transport into paddy rice (Oryza sativa) roots" (New Phytologist, 2002)

Related News Articles

The following are editorial articles from the news media as they relate to arsenic in food.

"FDA Tests Find Very Low Levels of Arsenic in Rice" (USA Today – 2013)

"FDA: Rice is Safe, Despite Small Levels of Arsenic" (Huffington Post - 2013)

"Yes, There’s Arsenic In Your Rice. But Is That Bad?" (NPR - 2012)

New Studies On Possible Mitigation Strategy

Microbe mobilizes 'iron shield' to block arsenic uptake in rice

News report for above study: “Arsenic and Old Rice, keeping the pair apart”

Last Updated: 04/05/16

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